Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Schedule of Policies [Line Items]  
Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements and Comparability to Prior Periods and Recently Issued Pronouncements Pending Adoption
Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements and Comparability to Prior Periods
Effective January 1, 2020, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) ASU 2016–13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016–13”). We adopted ASU 2016–13 using the optional transition approach with a charge to the beginning balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2020 (see Note 5 for the impact and disclosures associated with the adoption of ASU 2016–13).
Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in ASU 2016–02, Leases (“ASU 2016–02”) and related amendments to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) which, together with ASU 2016–02, represent Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 842, Leases (“ASC Topic 842”). We adopted ASC Topic 842 using the optional transition approach with a charge of $0.1 million to the beginning balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2019.
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in ASU 2014–09, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014–09”) and related amendments to GAAP which, together with ASU 2014–09, represent ASC Topic 606, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASC Topic 606”). We adopted ASC Topic 606 using the cumulative effect transition method and wrote off $2.7 million of accounts receivable arising from natural gas imbalances accounted for under the entitlements method as a direct reduction to our beginning balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2018.
Comparative periods and related disclosures have not been restated for the application of ASU 2016–13 and ASC Topic 842. Accordingly, certain components of our Consolidated Financial Statements are not comparable between periods and the Consolidated Statement of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 are presented based on prior GAAP for credit losses and leases, respectively, in their entirety.
Principles of Consolidation Principles of Consolidation Our Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Penn Virginia and all of its subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates 
Preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities in our Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates include certain asset and liability valuations as further described in these Notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents Cash and Cash Equivalents We consider all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Derivative Instruments
Derivative Instruments 
We utilize derivative instruments, which are placed with financial institutions that we believe are of acceptable credit risk, to mitigate our financial exposure to commodity price and interest rate volatility. All derivative transactions are subject to our risk management policy, which has been reviewed and approved by our board of directors. 
All derivative instruments are recognized in our Consolidated Financial Statements at fair value. We have elected to report all of our derivative asset and liability positions on a gross basis on our Consolidated Balance Sheet and not net the positions, even when a legal right-of-setoff exists. Our derivative instruments are not formally designated as hedges in the context of GAAP. In accordance with our internal policies, we do not utilize derivative instruments for speculative purposes. We recognize changes in fair value in earnings currently as a component of the Derivatives caption in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Oil and Gas Properties
Oil and Gas Properties 
We apply the full cost method of accounting for our oil and gas properties. Under this method, all productive and nonproductive costs incurred in the exploration, development and acquisition of oil and gas reserves are capitalized. Such costs may be incurred both prior to and after the acquisition of a property and include lease acquisitions, geological and geophysical, or seismic, drilling, completion and equipment costs. Internal costs incurred that are directly attributable to exploration, development and acquisition activities undertaken by us for our own account, and which are not attributable to production, general corporate overhead or similar activities are also capitalized. Future development costs are estimated on a property-by-property basis based on current economic conditions and are amortized as a component of depreciation, depletion and amortization (“DD&A”).
Unproved properties not being amortized include unevaluated leasehold costs and associated capitalized interest. These costs are reviewed quarterly to determine whether or not and to what extent proved reserves have been assigned to a property or if an impairment has occurred due to lease expirations, general economic conditions and other factors, in which case the related costs along with associated capitalized interest are reclassified to the proved oil and gas properties subject to DD&A.
At the end of each quarterly reporting period, the unamortized cost of our oil and gas properties, net of deferred income taxes, is limited to the sum of the estimated after-tax discounted future net revenues from proved properties adjusted for costs excluded from amortization (the “Ceiling Test”). The estimated after-tax discounted future net revenues are determined using the prior 12-month’s average commodity prices based on closing prices on the first day of each month, adjusted for differentials, discounted at 10%. The calculation of the Ceiling Test and provision for DD&A are based on estimates of proved reserves. There are significant uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of proved reserves and projecting future rates of production, timing and plan of development.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization
DD&A of our oil and gas properties is computed using the units-of-production method. We apply this method by multiplying the unamortized cost of our proved oil and gas properties, net of estimated salvage plus future development costs, by a rate determined by dividing the physical units of oil and gas produced during the period by the total estimated units of proved oil and gas reserves at the beginning of the period.
Other Property and Equipment
Other Property and Equipment 
Other property and equipment consists primarily of gathering systems and related support equipment, vehicles, leasehold improvements, information technology hardware and capitalized software costs. Other property and equipment are carried at cost and include expenditures for additions and improvements which increase the productive lives of existing assets. Renewals and betterments, which extend the useful life of the properties, are also capitalized. Maintenance and repair costs are charged to expense as incurred.
We compute depreciation and amortization of property and equipment using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of each asset as follows: Gathering systems – fifteen to twenty years and Other property and equipment – three to twenty years.
We determine if an arrangement is a lease at the inception of the underlying contractual arrangement. In addition, we determine whether the lease is classified as operating or financing. Leases are included in the captions “Other assets,” “Accounts payable and accrued liabilities” and “Other liabilities” on our Consolidated Balance Sheets and are identified as Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, Current lease obligations and Noncurrent lease obligations, respectively, in Notes 11 and 12.
ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease obligations represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the underlying contractual arrangement. Operating lease ROU assets and obligations are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The operating lease ROU assets include any lease payments made in advance and excludes lease incentives. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise such options. Lease expense for operating lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Most of our leasing arrangements do not identify or otherwise provide for an implicit interest rate. Accordingly, we utilize a secured incremental borrowing rate based on information available at the commencement date in the determination of the present value of the lease payments. As most of our lease arrangements have terms ranging from two to 5 years, our secured incremental borrowing rate is primarily based on the rates applicable to our Credit Facility.
We have lease arrangements that include lease and certain non-lease components, including amounts for related taxes, insurance, common area maintenance and similar terms. We apply a practical expedient provided in ASC Topic 842 to not separate the lease and non-lease components. Accordingly, the ROU assets and lease obligations for such leases will include the present value of the estimated payments for the non-lease components over the lease term.
Certain of our lease arrangements with contractual terms of 12 months or less are classified as short-term leases. Accordingly, we do not include the underlying ROU assets and lease obligations on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The associated costs are aggregated with all of our other lease arrangements and are disclosed in the tables in Note 11.
Certain of our lease arrangements result in variable lease payments which, in accordance with ASC Topic 842, do not give rise to lease obligations. Rather, the basis and terms and conditions upon which such variable lease payments are determined are disclosed in Note 11.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Asset Retirement Obligations
We recognize the fair value of a liability for an asset retirement obligation (“ARO”) in the period in which it is incurred. Associated asset retirement costs are capitalized as part of the carrying cost of the asset. Our AROs relate to the plugging and abandonment of oil and gas wells and the associated asset is recorded as a component of oil and gas properties. After recording these amounts, the ARO is accreted to its future estimated value, and the additional capitalized costs are depreciated over the productive life of the assets. Both the accretion of the ARO and the depreciation of the related long-lived assets are included in the DD&A expense caption in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes 
We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns. Using this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates. In assessing our deferred tax assets, we consider whether a valuation allowance should be recorded for some or all of the deferred tax assets which may not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is assessed at each reporting period and is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income and our ability to utilize operating loss carryforwards during the periods in which the temporary differences become deductible. We also consider the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities and available tax planning strategies. We recognize interest attributable to income taxes, to the extent it may be incurred, as a component of interest expense and penalties as a component of income tax expense. 
We are subject to ongoing tax examinations in numerous domestic jurisdictions. Accordingly, we may record incremental tax expense based upon the more-likely-than-not outcomes of uncertain tax positions. In addition, when applicable, we adjust the previously recorded tax expense to reflect examination results when the position is effectively settled. Our ongoing assessments of the more-likely-than-not outcomes of the examinations and related tax positions require judgment and can increase or decrease our effective tax rate, as well as impact our operating results. The specific timing of when the resolution of each tax position will be reached is uncertain.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition and Associated Costs
Substantially all of our commodity product sales are short-term in nature with contract terms of one year or less. We apply a practical expedient which provides for an exemption from disclosure of the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations if the performance obligation is part of a contract that has an original expected duration of one year or less. Under our commodity product sales contracts, we bill our customers and recognize revenue when our performance obligations have been satisfied. At that time, we have determined that payment is unconditional. Accordingly, our commodity sales contracts do not create contract assets or liabilities.
We record revenue in the month that our oil and gas production is delivered to our customers. As a result of the numerous requirements necessary to gather information from purchasers or various measurement locations, calculate volumes produced, perform field and wellhead allocations and distribute and disburse funds to various working interest partners and royalty owners, the collection of revenues from oil and gas production may take up to 60 days following the month of production. Therefore, we make accruals for revenues and accounts receivable based on estimates of our share of production. We record any differences, which historically have not been significant, between the actual amounts ultimately received and the original estimates in the period they become finalized.
Crude oil. We sell our crude oil production to our customers at either the wellhead or a contractually agreed-upon delivery point, including certain regional central delivery point terminals or pipeline inter-connections. We recognize revenue when control transfers to the customer considering factors associated with custody, title, risk of loss and other contractual provisions as appropriate. Pricing is based on a market index with adjustments for product quality, location differentials and, if applicable, deductions for intermediate transportation. Costs incurred by us for gathering and transporting the products to an agreed-upon delivery point are recognized as a component of gathering, processing and transportation expense (“GPT”).
NGLs. We have natural gas processing contracts in place with certain midstream processing vendors. We deliver “wet” natural gas to our midstream processing vendors at the inlet of their processing facilities through gathering lines, certain of which we own and others which are owned by gathering service providers. Subsequent to processing, NGLs are delivered or otherwise transported to a third-party customer. Depending upon the nature of the contractual arrangements with the midstream processing vendors regarding the marketing of the NGL products, we recognize revenue for NGL products on either a gross or net basis. For those contracts where we have determined that we are the principal, and the ultimate third party is our customer, we recognize revenue on a gross basis, with associated processing costs presented as GPT expenses. For those contracts where we have determined that we are the agent and the midstream processing vendor is our customer, we recognize NGL product revenues based on a net basis with processing costs presented as a reduction of revenue.
Natural gas. Subsequent to the processing of “wet” natural gas and the separation of NGL products, the “dry” or residue gas is delivered to us at the tailgate of the midstream processing vendors’ facilities and we market the product to our customers, most of whom are interstate pipelines. We recognize revenue when control transfers to the customer considering factors associated with custody, title, risk of loss and other contractual provisions as appropriate. Pricing is based on a market index with adjustments for product quality and location differentials, as applicable. Costs incurred by us for gathering and transportation from the wellhead through the processing facilities are recognized as a component of GPT expenses.
Marketing and water disposal services. We provide marketing and water disposal services to certain of our joint venture partners and other third parties with respect to oil and gas production for which we are the operator. Pricing for such services represents a fixed rate fee based, in the case of marketing services, on the sales price of the underlying oil and gas products and, in the case of water services, on the quantity of water volume processed. Marketing revenue is recognized simultaneously with the sale of our commodity production to our customers while water service revenue is recognized in the month that the service is rendered. Direct costs associated with our marketing efforts are included in G&A expenses and direct costs associated with our water service efforts are netted against the underlying revenue.
Share-Based Compensation
Share-Based Compensation 
Our stock compensation plans permit the grant of incentive and nonqualified stock options, common stock, deferred common stock units, restricted stock and restricted stock units to our employees and directors. We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity-classified instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. Compensation cost associated with equity-classified awards are generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the applicable vesting period except for those that are based on performance which are amortized on a graded basis over the term of the applicable performance periods. Compensation cost associated with liability-classified awards is measured at the end of each reporting period and recognized based on the period of time that has elapsed during the applicable performance period. We recognize forfeitures as they occur. We recognize share-based compensation expense related to our share-based compensation plans as a component of G&A in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Revenue from Contract with Customer
Fair Value of Measurements
We apply the authoritative accounting provisions included in GAAP for measuring fair value of both our financial and nonfinancial assets and liabilities. Fair value is an exit price representing the expected amount we would receive upon the sale of an asset or that we would expect to pay to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction with market participants at the measurement date.
We use a hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs we use to measure fair value into three distinct categories based upon whether such inputs are observable in active markets or unobservable. We classify assets and liabilities in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Our methodology for categorizing assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value pursuant to this hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets and the lowest level to unobservable inputs as outlined below.
Fair value measurements are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities. Level 1 inputs generally provide the most reliable evidence of fair value.
Level 2: Quoted prices in markets that are not active or inputs, which are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3: Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (i.e., supported by little or no market activity).
Financing Receivable, Allowance for Credit Losses, Policy for Uncollectible Amounts
Credit Losses
We monitor and assess our portfolio of accounts receivable, including those from our customers, our joint interest partners and others, when applicable, for credit losses on a monthly basis as we originate the underlying financial assets. Our review process and related internal controls take into appropriate consideration (i) past events and historical experience with the identified portfolio segments, (ii) current economic and related conditions within the broad energy industry as well as those factors with broader applicability and (iii) reasonable supportable forecasts consistent with other estimates that are inherent in our financial statements. In order to facilitate our processes for the review and assessment of credit losses, we have identified the following portfolio segments: (i) customers for our commodity production and (ii) joint interest partners which are further stratified into the following sub-segments: (a) mutual operators which includes joint interest partners with whom we are a non-operating joint interest partner in properties for which they are the operator, (b) large partners consisting of those legal entities that maintain a working interest of at least 10 percent in properties for which we are the operator and (c) all others which includes legal entities that maintain working interests of less than 10 percent in properties for which we are the operator as well as legal entities with whom we no longer have an active joint interest relationship, but continue to have transactions, including joint venture audit settlements, that from time-to-time give rise to the origination of new accounts receivable.
Fair Value, Measurements, Recurring  
Schedule of Policies [Line Items]  
Fair Value of Measurements
We used the following methods and assumptions to estimate fair values for the financial assets and liabilities described below:
Commodity derivatives: We determine the fair values of our commodity derivative instruments using industry-standard models that consider various assumptions including current market and contractual prices for the underlying instruments, implied volatilities, time value and non-performance risk. For the current market prices, we use third-party quoted forward prices, as applicable, for NYMEX WTI, MEH crude oil and NYMEX HH natural gas closing prices as of the end of the reporting periods. Each of these is a level 2 input.
Interest rate swaps: We determine the fair values of our interest rate swaps using an income valuation approach valuation technique which discounts future cash flows back to a single present value. We estimate the fair value of the swaps based on published interest rate yield curves as of the date of the estimate. Each of these is a Level 2 input.