Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation (Policies)

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Basis of Presentation (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
Our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Penn Virginia and all of our subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Preparation of these statements involves the use of estimates and judgments where appropriate. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring accruals, considered necessary for a fair presentation of our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, have been included. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2020.
Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Effective January 1, 2020, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016–13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016–13”). We adopted ASU 2016–13 using the optional transition approach with a charge to the beginning balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2020 (see Note 4 for the impact and disclosures associated with the adoption of ASU 2016–13). Comparative periods and related disclosures have not been restated for the application of ASU 2016–13.
Risks and Uncertainties
As an oil and gas exploration and development company, we are exposed to a number of risks and uncertainties that are inherent to our industry. In addition to such industry-specific risks, the global public health crisis associated with the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) has, and is anticipated to continue to have, an adverse effect on global economic activity for the immediate future and has resulted in travel restrictions, business closures and the institution of quarantining and other restrictions on movement in many communities. The slowdown in global economic activity attributable to COVID-19 has resulted in a dramatic decline in the demand for energy, which directly impacts our industry and the Company. In addition, global crude oil prices experienced a collapse starting in early March 2020 as a direct result of failed negotiations between the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and Russia. In response to the global economic slowdown, OPEC had recommended a decrease in production levels in order to accommodate reduced demand. Russia rejected the recommendation of OPEC as a concession to U.S. producers. After the failure to reach an agreement, Saudi Arabia, a dominant member of OPEC, and other Persian Gulf OPEC members announced intentions to increase production and offer price discounts to buyers in certain geographic regions.
As the breadth of the COVID-19 health crisis expanded throughout the month of March 2020 and governmental authorities implemented more restrictive measures to limit person-to-person contact, global economic activity continued to decline commensurately. The associated impact on the energy industry has been adverse and continued to be exacerbated by the unresolved conflict regarding production. In the second week of April, OPEC, Russia and certain other petroleum producing nations (“OPEC+”), reconvened to discuss the matter of production cuts in light of unprecedented disruption and supply and demand imbalances that expanded since the failed negotiations in early March 2020. Tentative agreements were reached to cut production by up to 10 million barrels of oil per day with allocations to be made among the OPEC+ participants. If effected, these production cuts, however, may not offset near-term demand loss attributable to the COVID-19 health crisis and related economic slowdown, and the tentative agreement has not resulted in increased commodity prices.
Despite a significant decline in drilling by U.S. producers starting in mid-March 2020, domestic supply is exceeding demand which has led to significant operational stress with respect to capacity limitations associated with storage, pipeline and refining infrastructure, particularly within the Gulf Coast region. The combined effect of the aforementioned factors is anticipated to have an adverse impact on the industry in general and our operations specifically.
During March and April 2020, we initiated several actions to mitigate the anticipated adverse economic conditions for the immediate future and to support our financial position and liquidity. The more significant actions that we took in March/April 2020 included: (i) suspending our drilling and completion program, (ii) substantially expanding the scope and range of our commodity derivatives portfolio, (iii) initiating actions to pursue certain liquidity-related provisions of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) and related regulations. These actions are discussed further in Notes 5, 8 and 12 that follow.
Going Concern Presumption
Our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities and other commitments in the normal course of business.
Subsequent Events
Management has evaluated all of our activities through the issuance date of our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and has concluded that, with the exception of the re-determination of the borrowing base and related amendments to our credit agreement (“Credit Facility”), as disclosed in Note 7, no subsequent events have occurred that would require recognition in our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements or disclosure in the Notes thereto.
New Accounting Pronouncements
Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Effective January 1, 2020, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016–13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016–13”). We adopted ASU 2016–13 using the optional transition approach with a charge to the beginning balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2020 (see Note 4 for the impact and disclosures associated with the adoption of ASU 2016–13). Comparative periods and related disclosures have not been restated for the application of ASU 2016–13.
Fair Value Measurements
We apply the authoritative accounting provisions included in GAAP for measuring the fair value of both our financial and nonfinancial assets and liabilities. Fair value is an exit price representing the expected amount we would receive upon the sale of an asset or that we would expect to pay to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction with market participants at the measurement date.
Our financial instruments that are subject to fair value disclosure consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, derivatives and our Credit Facility and Second Lien Facility borrowings. As of March 31, 2020, the carrying values of all of these financial instruments approximated fair value.
We used the following methods and assumptions to estimate fair values for the financial assets and liabilities described below:
Commodity derivatives: We determine the fair values of our commodity derivative instruments using industry-standard models that consider various assumptions including current market and contractual prices for the underlying instruments, implied volatilities, time value and non-performance risk. For the current market prices, we use third-party quoted forward prices, as applicable, for NYMEX WTI, MEH crude oil and NYMEX HH natural gas closing prices as of the end of the reporting periods. Each of these is a Level 2 input.
Interest rate swaps: We determine the fair values of our interest rate swaps using an income approach valuation technique that connects future cash flows to a single discounted value. We estimate the fair value of the swaps based on published interest rate yield curves as of the date of the estimate. Each of these is a Level 2 input.
Non-Recurring Fair Value Measurements
The most significant non-recurring fair value measurements utilized in the preparation of our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements are those attributable to the initial determination of AROs associated with the ongoing development of new oil and gas properties. The determination of the fair value of AROs is based upon regional market and facility specific information. The amount of an ARO and the costs capitalized represent the estimated future cost to satisfy the abandonment obligation using current prices that are escalated by an assumed inflation factor after discounting the future cost back to the date that the abandonment obligation was incurred using a rate commensurate with the risk, which approximates our cost of funds. Because these significant fair value inputs are typically not observable, we have categorized the initial estimates as Level 3 inputs.
Credit Losses and Allowance for Credit Losses
Credit Losses and Allowance for Credit Losses
Adoption of ASU 2016–13
Effective January 1, 2020, we adopted ASU 2016–13 and have applied the guidance therein to our portfolio of accounts receivable including those from our customers and our joint interest partners. We have adopted ASU 2016–13 using the modified retrospective method resulting in an adjustment of less than $0.1 million to the beginning balance of retained earnings and a corresponding increase to the allowance for credit losses as of January 1, 2020.
Accounting Policies for Credit Losses
We monitor and assess our portfolio of accounts receivable, including those from our customers, our joint interest partners and others, when applicable, for credit losses on a monthly basis as we originate the underlying financial assets. Our review process and related internal controls take into appropriate consideration (i) past events and historical experience with the identified portfolio segments, (ii) current economic and related conditions within the broad energy industry as well as those
factors with broader applicability and (iii) reasonable supportable forecasts consistent with other estimates that are inherent in our financial statements. In order to facilitate our processes for the review and assessment of credit losses, we have identified the following portfolio segments which are described below: (i) customers for our commodity production and (ii) joint interest partners which are further stratified into the following sub-segments: (a) mutual operators which includes joint interest partners with whom we are a non-operating joint interest partner in properties for which they are the operator, (b) large partners consisting of those legal entities that maintain a working interest of at least 10 percent in properties for which we are the operator and (c) all others which includes legal entities that maintain working interests of less than 10 percent in properties for which we are the operator as well as legal entities with whom we no longer have an active joint interest relationship, but continue to have transactions, including joint venture audit settlements, that from time-to-time give rise to the origination of new accounts receivable.
Customers. We sell our commodity products to approximately 20 customers. A substantial majority of these customers are large, internationally recognized refiners and marketers in the case of our crude oil sales and large domestic processors and interstate pipelines with respect to our NGL and natural gas sales. As noted in our disclosures regarding major customers above, a significant portion of our outstanding customer accounts receivable are concentrated within a group of up to five customers at any given time. Due primarily to the historical market efficiencies and generally timely settlements associated with commodity sale transactions for crude oil, NGLs and natural gas, we have assessed this portfolio segment at zero risk for credit loss upon the adoption of ASU 2016–13 and for each of the three-months included in the period ended March 31, 2020. Historically, we have never experienced a credit loss with such customers including the periods during the 2008-2009 financial crisis and the more recent periods of significant commodity price declines. While we believe that the receivables that originated in March 2020 will be fully collected despite the ongoing uncertainty associated with the COVID-19 health crisis and the related global energy market disruptions, future originations of customer receivables will be assessed with a greater emphasis on current economic conditions and reasonable supportable forecasts.
Mutual Operators. As of March 31, 2020, we had mutual joint interest partner relationships with two upstream producers that also operate properties within the Eagle Ford for which we have non-operated working interests. Historically we have had full and timely collection experiences with these entities and we ourselves are timely with respect to our payments to them of joint venture costs. Upon adoption of ASU 2016–13, we had assessed this portfolio segment at zero risk for credit loss; however, in light of the potential for liquidity concerns due to current economic conditions in the near-term, we have assessed receivables originating in March 2020 with a de minimus one percent risk.
Large Partners. As of March 31, 2020, four legal entities had working interests of 10 percent or greater in properties that we operate. These entities are primarily passive investors. Historically we have had full and timely collection experiences with these entities. Upon adoption of ASU 2016–13, we had assessed this portfolio segment at a de minimus risk of one percent for credit loss; however, in light of the potential for liquidity concerns due to current economic conditions in the near-term, we have increased the assessed receivables originating in March 2020 to a two percent risk.
All Others. As of March 31, 2020, approximately thirty legal entities had working interests of less than 10 percent in properties that we operate. Historically, this is the only portfolio segment with whom we have experienced credit losses. Generally, this group includes passive investors and smaller producers that may not have the wherewithal or alternative sources of liquidity to settle their obligations to us in the event of individual challenges unique to smaller entities as well as adverse economic conditions in general. Upon adoption of ASU 2016–13, we had assessed this portfolio segment at a risk of five percent for credit loss; however, in light of the potential for liquidity concerns due to current economic conditions in the near-term, we have increased the assessed receivables originated in March 2020 to a 10 percent risk. As of March 31, 2020, approximately $0.1 million of accounts receivables attributable to this portfolio segment was past due, or over 60 days.