Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Schedule of Policies [Line Items]  
Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements and Comparability to Prior Periods and Recently Issued Pronouncements Pending Adoption
Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements and Comparability to Prior Periods
Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016–02, Leases (“ASU 2016–02”) and related amendments to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) which, together with ASU 2016–02, represent Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 842, Leases (“ASC Topic 842”). We adopted ASC Topic 842 using the optional transition approach with a charge to the beginning balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2019 (see Note 11 for the impact and disclosures associated with the adoption of ASC Topic 842).
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in ASU 2014–09, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014–09”) and related amendments to GAAP which, together with ASU 2014–09, represent ASC Topic 606, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASC Topic 606”). We adopted ASC Topic 606 using the cumulative effect transition method (see Note 5 for the impact and disclosures associated with the adoption of ASC Topic 606).
Comparative periods and related disclosures have not been restated for the application of ASC Topic 842 and ASC Topic 606. Accordingly, certain components of our Consolidated Financial Statements are not comparable between periods and the Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2017 is presented based on prior GAAP for both revenue recognition and leases in their entirety.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Pending Adoption
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016–13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016–13”), which changes the recognition model for the impairment of financial instruments, including accounts receivable, loans and held-to-maturity debt securities, among others. ASU 2016–13 is required to be adopted using the modified retrospective method by January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2018. In contrast to current guidance, which considers current information and events and utilizes a probable threshold, (an “incurred loss” model), ASU 2016–13 mandates an “expected loss” model. The expected loss model: (i) estimates the risk of loss even when risk is remote, (ii) estimates losses over the contractual life, (iii) considers past events, current conditions and reasonable supported forecasts and (iv) has no recognition threshold. ASU 2016–13 will have applicability to our accounts receivable portfolio, particularly those receivables attributable to our joint interest partners which have a higher credit risk than those associated with our traditional customer receivables. We will adopt ASU 2016–13 effective January 1, 2020. While we do not anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2016–13 will have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures, we will be applying new procedures and controls to our customer and partner billing processes in order to apply the expected loss model on a monthly basis.
anagement has evaluated all of our activities through the issuance date of our Consolidated Financial Statements and has concluded that, other than the entry into additional commodity derivative contracts including crude oil and natural gas hedges and certain interest rate swap agreements (see Note 6), all in the ordinary course of business, no subsequent events have occurred that would require recognition in our Consolidated Financial Statements or disclosure in the Notes thereto.
Principles of Consolidation
 Principles of Consolidation 
Our Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Penn Virginia and all of its subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates 
Preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities in our Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates include certain asset and liability valuations as further described in these Notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents 
We consider all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Derivative Instruments
Derivative Instruments 
From time to time, we utilize derivative instruments to mitigate our financial exposure to commodity price and interest rate volatility. The derivative instruments, which are placed with financial institutions that we believe are of acceptable credit risk, generally take the form of collars and swaps. All derivative transactions are subject to our risk management policy, which has been reviewed and approved by our board of directors. 
All derivative instruments are recognized in our Consolidated Financial Statements at fair value. The fair values of our derivative instruments are determined based on discounted cash flows derived from quoted forward prices. Our derivative instruments are not formally designated as hedges. We recognize changes in fair value in earnings currently as a component of the Derivatives caption in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. We have experienced and could continue to experience significant changes in the amount of derivative gains or losses recognized due to fluctuations in the value of the underlying derivative contracts, which fluctuate with changes in commodity prices and interest rates.
Oil and Gas Properties
Oil and Gas Properties 
We apply the full cost method of accounting for our oil and gas properties. Under this method, all productive and nonproductive costs incurred in the exploration, development and acquisition of oil and gas reserves are capitalized. Such costs may be incurred both prior to and after the acquisition of a property and include lease acquisitions, geological and geophysical, or seismic, drilling, completion and equipment costs. Internal costs incurred that are directly attributable to exploration, development and acquisition activities undertaken by us for our own account, and which are not attributable to production, general corporate overhead or similar activities are also capitalized. Future development costs are estimated on a property-by-property basis based on current economic conditions and are amortized as a component of depreciation, depletion and amortization (“DD&A”).
Unproved properties not being amortized include unevaluated leasehold costs and associated capitalized interest. These costs are reviewed quarterly to determine whether or not and to what extent proved reserves have been assigned to a property or if an impairment has occurred due to lease expirations, general economic conditions and other factors, in which case the related costs along with associated capitalized interest are reclassified to the proved oil and gas properties subject to DD&A.
At the end of each quarterly reporting period, the unamortized cost of our oil and gas properties, net of deferred income taxes, is limited to the sum of the estimated discounted future net revenues from proved properties adjusted for costs excluded from amortization and related income taxes (a “Ceiling Test”). The estimated discounted future net revenues are determined using the prior 12-month’s average price based on closing prices on the first day of each month, adjusted for differentials, discounted at 10%. The calculation of the Ceiling Test and provision for DD&A are based on estimates of proved reserves. There are significant uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of proved reserves and projecting future rates of production, timing and plan of development.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization
DD&A of our oil and gas properties is computed using the units-of-production method. We apply this method by multiplying the unamortized cost of our proved oil and gas properties, net of estimated salvage plus future development costs, by a rate determined by dividing the physical units of oil and gas produced during the period by the total estimated units of proved oil and gas reserves at the beginning of the period.
Other Property and Equipment
Other Property and Equipment 
Other property and equipment consists primarily of gathering systems and related support equipment. Property and equipment are carried at cost and include expenditures for additions and improvements which increase the productive lives of existing assets. Maintenance and repair costs are charged to expense as incurred. Renewals and betterments, which extend the useful life of the properties, are capitalized.
We compute depreciation and amortization of property and equipment using the straight-line balance method over the estimated useful life of each asset as follows: Gathering systems – fifteen to twenty years and Other property and equipment – three to twenty years.
Leases
Leases
We determine if an arrangement is a lease at the inception of the underlying contractual arrangement. In addition, we determine whether the lease is classified as operating or financing. As of the date of adoption of ASC Topic 842 and through December 31, 2019, we do not have any financing leases. Leases are included in the captions “Other assets,” “Accounts payable and accrued liabilities” and “Other liabilities” on our Consolidated Balance Sheets and are identified as Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, Current lease obligations and Noncurrent lease obligations, respectively, in Notes 11 and 12.
ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease obligations represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the underlying contractual arrangement. Operating lease ROU assets and obligations are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The operating lease ROU assets include any lease payments made in advance and excludes lease incentives. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise such options. Lease expense for operating lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Most of our leasing arrangements do not identify or otherwise provide for an implicit interest rate. Accordingly, we utilize a secured incremental borrowing rate based on information available at the commencement date in the determination of the present value of the lease payments. As most of our lease arrangements have terms ranging from two to 5 years, our secured incremental borrowing rate is primarily based on the rates applicable to our credit agreement (the “Credit Facility”).
We have lease arrangements that include lease and certain non-lease components, including amounts for related taxes, insurance, common area maintenance and similar terms. We have elected to apply a practical expedient provided in ASC Topic 842 to not separate the lease and non-lease components. Accordingly, the ROU assets and lease obligations for such leases will include the present value of the estimated payments for the non-lease components over the lease term.
Certain of our lease arrangements with contractual terms of 12 months or less are classified as short-term leases. Accordingly, we have elected to not include the underlying ROU assets and lease obligations on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The associated costs are aggregated with all of our other lease arrangements and are disclosed in the tables in Note 11.
Certain of our lease arrangements result in variable lease payments which, in accordance with ASC Topic 842, do not give rise to lease obligations. Rather, the basis and terms and conditions upon which such variable lease payments are determined are disclosed in Note 11.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Asset Retirement Obligations
We recognize the fair value of a liability for an asset retirement obligation (“ARO”) in the period in which it is incurred. Associated asset retirement costs are capitalized as part of the carrying cost of the asset. Our AROs relate to the plugging and abandonment of oil and gas wells and the associated asset is recorded as a component of oil and gas properties. After recording these amounts, the ARO is accreted to its future estimated value, and the additional capitalized costs are depreciated over the productive life of the assets. Both the accretion of the ARO and the depreciation of the related long-lived assets are included in the DD&A expense caption in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes 
We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns. Using this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates. In assessing our deferred tax assets, we consider whether a valuation allowance should be recorded for some or all of the deferred tax assets which may not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is assessed at each reporting period and is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income and our ability to utilize tax credits and operating loss carryforwards during the periods in which the temporary differences become deductible. We also consider the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities and available tax planning strategies. We recognize interest attributable to income taxes, to the extent they arise, as a component of interest expense and penalties as a component of income tax expense. 
We are subject to ongoing tax examinations in numerous domestic jurisdictions. Accordingly, we may record incremental tax expense based upon the more-likely-than-not outcomes of uncertain tax positions. In addition, when applicable, we adjust the previously recorded tax expense to reflect examination results when the position is effectively settled. Our ongoing assessments of the more-likely-than-not outcomes of the examinations and related tax positions require judgment and can increase or decrease our effective tax rate, as well as impact our operating results. The specific timing of when the resolution of each tax position will be reached is uncertain.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition and Associated Costs
Crude oil. We sell our crude oil production to our customers at either the wellhead or a contractually agreed-upon delivery point, including certain regional central delivery point terminals or pipeline inter-connections. We recognize revenue when control transfers to the customer considering factors associated with custody, title, risk of loss and other contractual provisions as appropriate. Pricing is based on a market index with adjustments for product quality, location differentials and, if applicable, deductions for intermediate transportation. Costs incurred by us for gathering and transporting the products to an agreed-upon delivery point are recognized as a component of GPT expense.
NGLs. We have natural gas processing contracts in place with certain midstream processing vendors. We deliver “wet” natural gas to our midstream processing vendors at the inlet of their processing facilities through gathering lines, certain of which we own and others which are owned by gathering service providers. Subsequent to processing, NGLs are delivered or otherwise transported to a third-party customer. Depending upon the nature of the contractual arrangements with the midstream processing vendors, particularly those attributable to the marketing of the NGL products, we recognize revenue for NGL products on either a gross or net basis. For those contracts where we have determined that we are the principal, and the ultimate third party is our customer, we recognize revenue on a gross basis, with associated processing costs presented as GPT expenses. For those contracts where we have determined that we are the agent and the midstream processing vendor is our customer, we recognize NGL product revenues based on a net basis with processing costs presented as a reduction of revenue. Based on an analysis of all of our existing natural gas processing contracts, we have determined that, as of January 1, 2018, and through December 31, 2019, we were the agent and our midstream processing vendors were our customers with respect to all of our NGL product sales.
Natural gas. Subsequent to the aforementioned processing of “wet” natural gas and the separation of NGL products, the “dry” or residue gas is delivered to us at the tailgate of the midstream processing vendors’ facilities and we market the product to our customers, most of whom are interstate pipelines. We recognize revenue when control transfers to the customer considering factors associated with custody, title, risk of loss and other contractual provisions as appropriate. Pricing is based on a market index with adjustments for product quality and location differentials, as applicable. Costs incurred by us for gathering and transportation from the wellhead through the processing facilities are recognized as a component of GPT expenses.
Marketing services. We provide marketing services to certain of our joint venture partners and other third parties with respect to oil and gas production for which we are the operator. Pricing for such services represents a negotiated fixed rate fee based on the sales price of the underlying oil and gas products. Production attributable to joint venture partners from wells that we operate that are not subject to marketing agreements are delivered in kind. Marketing revenue is recognized simultaneously with the sale of our commodity production to our customers. Direct costs associated with our marketing efforts are included in G&A expenses.
Share-Based Compensation
Share-Based Compensation 
Our stock compensation plans permit the grant of incentive and nonqualified stock options, common stock, deferred common stock units, restricted stock and restricted stock units to our employees and directors. We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity-classified instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. Compensation cost associated with equity-classified awards are generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the applicable vesting period except for those that are based on performance which are amortized on a graded basis over the term of the applicable performance periods. Compensation cost associated with liability-classified awards is measured at the end of each reporting period and recognized based on the period of time that has elapsed during the applicable performance period. We recognize share-based compensation expense related to our share-based compensation plans as a component of “General and administrative” expense in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Revenue from Contract with Customer
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
Adoption of ASC Topic 606
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC Topic 606 and have applied the guidance therein to our contracts with customers for the sale of commodity products (crude oil, NGLs and natural gas) as well as marketing services that we provide to our joint venture partners and other third parties. ASC Topic 606 provides for a five-step revenue recognition process model to determine the transfer of goods or services to consumers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for such goods and services.
Upon the adoption of ASC Topic 606, we: (i) changed the presentation of our NGL product revenues from a gross basis to a net basis and changed the classification of certain natural gas processing costs associated with NGLs from a component of “Gathering, processing and transportation” (“GPT”) expense to a reduction of NGL product revenues as described in further detail below, (ii) wrote off $2.7 million of accounts receivable arising from natural gas imbalances accounted for under the entitlements method as a direct reduction to our beginning balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2018, and (iii) adopted the sales method with respect to production imbalance transactions beginning after December 31, 2017.
Transaction Prices, Contract Balances and Performance Obligations
Substantially all of our commodity product sales are short-term in nature with contract terms of one year or less. Accordingly, we have applied the practical expedient included in ASC Topic 606, which provides for an exemption from disclosure of the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations if the performance obligation is part of a contract that has an original expected duration of one year or less.
Under our commodity product sales contracts, we bill our customers and recognize revenue when our performance obligations have been satisfied as described above. At that time, we have determined that payment is unconditional. Accordingly, our commodity sales contracts do not create contract assets or liabilities as those terms are defined in ASC Topic 606.
We record revenue in the month that our oil and gas production is delivered to our customers. As a result of the numerous requirements necessary to gather information from purchasers or various measurement locations, calculate volumes produced, perform field and wellhead allocations and distribute and disburse funds to various working interest partners and royalty owners, the collection of revenues from oil and gas production may take up to 60 days following the month of production. Therefore, we make accruals for revenues and accounts receivable based on estimates of our share of production. We record any differences, which historically have not been significant, between the actual amounts ultimately received and the original estimates in the period they become finalized.
Fair Value of Measurements
We apply the authoritative accounting provisions for measuring fair value of both our financial and nonfinancial assets and liabilities. Fair value is an exit price representing the expected amount we would receive upon the sale of an asset or that we would expect to pay to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction with market participants at the measurement date.
We use a hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs we use to measure fair value into three distinct categories based upon whether such inputs are observable in active markets or unobservable. We classify assets and liabilities in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Our methodology for categorizing assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value pursuant to this hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets and the lowest level to unobservable inputs as outlined below.
Fair value measurements are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities. Level 1 inputs generally provide the most reliable evidence of fair value.
Level 2: Quoted prices in markets that are not active or inputs, which are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3: Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (i.e., supported by little or no market activity).
Fair Value, Measurements, Recurring  
Schedule of Policies [Line Items]  
Fair Value of Measurements
We used the following methods and assumptions to estimate fair values for the financial assets and liabilities described below:
Commodity derivatives: We determine the fair values of our commodity derivative instruments based on discounted cash flows derived from third-party quoted forward prices for WTI, LLS and MEH crude oil closing prices as of the end of the reporting periods. We generally use the income approach, using valuation techniques that convert future cash flows to a single discounted value. Each of these is a level 2 input.