Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v3.10.0.1
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - USD ($)
$ in Millions
9 Months Ended 12 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]    
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
 Principles of Consolidation 
Our Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Penn Virginia and all of its subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates 
Preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities in our Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates include certain asset and liability valuations as further described in these Notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents 
We consider all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. 
Derivative Instruments 
From time to time, we utilize derivative instruments to mitigate our financial exposure to commodity price and interest rate volatility. The derivative instruments, which are placed with financial institutions that we believe are of acceptable credit risk, generally take the form of collars and swaps. All derivative transactions are subject to our risk management policy, which has been reviewed and approved by our board of directors. 
All derivative instruments are recognized in our Consolidated Financial Statements at fair value. The fair values of our derivative instruments are determined based on discounted cash flows derived from quoted forward prices. Our derivative instruments are not formally designated as hedges. We recognize changes in fair value in earnings currently as a component of the Derivatives caption in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. We have experienced and could continue to experience significant changes in the amount of derivative gains or losses recognized due to fluctuations in the value of these commodity derivative contracts, which fluctuate with changes in commodity prices and interest rates. 
Oil and Gas Properties 
We apply the full cost method of accounting for our oil and gas properties which we adopted effective with our adoption of Fresh Start Accounting. Under this method, all productive and nonproductive costs incurred in the exploration, development and acquisition of oil and gas reserves are capitalized. Such costs may be incurred both prior to and after the acquisition of a property and include lease acquisitions, geological and geophysical, or seismic, drilling, completion and equipment costs. Internal costs incurred that are directly attributable to exploration, development and acquisition activities undertaken by us for our own account, and which are not attributable to production, general corporate overhead or similar activities are also capitalized. Future development costs are estimated on a property-by-property basis based on current economic conditions and are amortized as a component of depreciation, depletion and amortization (“DD&A”).
Unproved properties not being amortized include unevaluated leasehold costs and associated capitalized interest. These costs are reviewed quarterly to determine whether or not and to what extent proved reserves have been assigned to a property or if an impairment has occurred due to lease expirations, general economic conditions and other factors, in which case the related costs along with associated capitalized interest are reclassified to the proved oil and gas properties subject to DD&A.
At the end of each quarterly reporting period, the unamortized cost of our oil and gas properties, net of deferred income taxes, is limited to the sum of the estimated discounted future net revenues from proved properties adjusted for costs excluded from amortization and related income taxes (a “Ceiling Test”). The estimated discounted future net revenues are determined using the prior 12-month’s average price based on closing prices on the first day of each month, adjusted for differentials, discounted at 10%. The calculation of the Ceiling Test and provision for DD&A are based on estimates of proved reserves. There are significant uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of proved reserves and projecting future rates of production, timing and plan of development.
For the periods prior to the Emergence Date, we applied the successful efforts method of accounting for our oil and gas properties. Under this method, costs of acquiring properties, costs of drilling successful exploration wells and development costs were capitalized. Seismic costs, delay rentals and costs to drill exploratory wells that did not find proved reserves were expensed as oil and gas exploration. We carried the costs of exploratory wells as assets if the wells had found a sufficient quantity of reserves to justify its completion as a producing well and as long as we were making sufficient progress assessing the reserves and the economic and operating viability of the project. For certain projects, it may have taken us more than one year to evaluate the future potential of the exploratory well and make determinations of their economic viability. Our ability to move forward on projects was dependent on gaining access to transportation or processing facilities or obtaining permits and government or partner approval, the timing of which was beyond our control. In such cases, exploratory well costs remained suspended as long as we were actively pursuing access to the necessary facilities or receiving such permits and approvals and believed that they would be obtained. We assessed the status of suspended exploratory well costs on a quarterly basis.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization
DD&A of our oil and gas properties is computed using the units-of-production method. We apply this method by multiplying the unamortized cost of our proved oil and gas properties, net of estimated salvage plus future development costs, by a rate determined by dividing the physical units of oil and gas produced during the period by the total estimated units of proved oil and gas reserves at the beginning of the period.
DD&A of our proved properties while we applied the successful efforts method during the Predecessor periods was computed using the units-of-production method. Historically, we adjusted our depletion rate throughout the year as new data became available.
Other Property and Equipment 
Other property and equipment consists primarily of gathering systems and related support equipment. Property and equipment are carried at cost and include expenditures for additions and improvements which increase the productive lives of existing assets. Maintenance and repair costs are charged to expense as incurred. Renewals and betterments, which extend the useful life of the properties, are capitalized.
We compute depreciation and amortization of property and equipment using the straight-line balance method over the estimated useful life of each asset as follows: Gathering systems – fifteen to twenty years and Other property and equipment – three to twenty years.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
While we applied the successful efforts method of accounting for our oil and gas properties during the Predecessor periods, we reviewed our assets for impairment when events or circumstances indicated a possible decline in the recoverability of the carrying value of the properties. If the carrying value of the asset was determined to be impaired, we reduced the asset to its fair value. Fair value may have been estimated using comparable market data, a discounted cash flow method, or a combination of the two. In the discounted cash flow method, estimated future cash flows were based on management’s expectations for the future and included estimates of future production, commodity prices based on published forward commodity price curves as of the date of the estimate, operating and development costs, intent to develop properties and a risk-adjusted discount rate.
We reviewed oil and gas properties for impairment periodically when events and circumstances indicated a decline in the recoverability of the carrying value of such properties, such as a downward revision of the reserve estimates or lower commodity prices. We estimated the future cash flows expected in connection with the properties and compared such future cash flows to the carrying amounts of the properties to determine if the carrying amounts were recoverable. Performing the impairment evaluations required use of judgments and estimates since the results were dependent on future events. Such events included estimates of proved and unproved reserves, future commodity prices, the timing of future production, capital expenditures and intent to develop properties, among others.
 The costs of unproved leaseholds, including associated interest costs for the period activities were in progress to bring projects to their intended use, were capitalized pending the results of exploration efforts. Unproved properties whose acquisition costs were insignificant to total oil and gas properties were amortized in the aggregate over the lesser of five years or the average remaining lease term and the amortization was charged to exploration expense. We assessed unproved properties whose acquisition costs were relatively significant, if any, for impairment on a stand-alone basis. As exploration work progressed and the reserves on properties were proved, capitalized costs of these properties became subject to depreciation and depletion. If the exploration work was unsuccessful, the capitalized costs of the properties related to the unsuccessful work was charged to exploration expense. The timing of any write-downs of any significant unproved properties depended upon the nature, timing and extent of future exploration and development activities and their results.
Asset Retirement Obligations
We recognize the fair value of a liability for an asset retirement obligation (“ARO”) in the period in which it is incurred. Associated asset retirement costs are capitalized as part of the carrying cost of the asset. Our AROs relate to the plugging and abandonment of oil and gas wells and the associated asset is recorded as a component of oil and gas properties. After recording these amounts, the ARO is accreted to its future estimated value, and the additional capitalized costs are depreciated over the productive life of the assets. Both the accretion of the ARO and the depreciation of the related long-lived assets are included in the DD&A expense caption in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Income Taxes 
We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns. Using this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates. In assessing our deferred tax assets, we consider whether a valuation allowance should be recorded for some or all of the deferred tax assets which may not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is assessed at each reporting period and is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income and our ability to utilize tax credits and operating loss carryforwards during the periods in which the temporary differences become deductible. We also consider the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities and available tax planning strategies. We recognize interest attributable to income taxes, to the extent they arise, as a component of interest expense and penalties as a component of income tax expense. 
We are subject to ongoing tax examinations in numerous domestic jurisdictions. Accordingly, we may record incremental tax expense based upon the more-likely-than-not outcomes of uncertain tax positions. In addition, when applicable, we adjust the previously recorded tax expense to reflect examination results when the position is effectively settled. Our ongoing assessments of the more-likely-than-not outcomes of the examinations and related tax positions require judgment and can increase or decrease our effective tax rate, as well as impact our operating results. The specific timing of when the resolution of each tax position will be reached is uncertain.
Revenue Recognition and Associated Costs
Crude oil. We sell our crude oil production to our customers at either the wellhead or a contractually agreed-upon delivery point, including certain regional central delivery point terminals or pipeline inter-connections. We recognize revenue when control transfers to the customer considering factors associated with custody, title, risk of loss and other contractual provisions as appropriate. Pricing is based on a market index with adjustments for product quality, location differentials and, if applicable, deductions for intermediate transportation. Costs incurred by us for gathering and transporting the products to an agreed-upon delivery point are recognized as a component of GPT expense.
NGLs. We have natural gas processing contracts in place with certain midstream processing vendors. We deliver “wet” natural gas to our midstream processing vendors at the inlet of their processing facilities through gathering lines, certain of which we own and others which are owned by gathering service providers. Subsequent to processing, NGLs are delivered or otherwise transported to a third-party customer. Depending upon the nature of the contractual arrangements with the midstream processing vendors, particularly those attributable to the marketing of the NGL products, we recognize revenue for NGL products on either a gross or net basis. For those contracts where we have determined that we are the principal, and the ultimate third party is our customer, we recognize revenue on a gross basis, with associated processing costs presented as GPT expenses. For those contracts where we have determined that we are the agent and the midstream processing vendor is our customer, we recognize NGL product revenues based on a net basis with processing costs presented as a reduction of revenue. Based on an analysis of all of our existing natural gas processing contracts, we have determined that, as of January 1, 2018, and through December 31, 2018, we were the agent and our midstream processing vendors were our customers with respect to all of our NGL product sales.
Natural gas. Subsequent to the aforementioned processing of “wet” natural gas and the separation of NGL products, the “dry” or residue gas is delivered to us at the tailgate of the midstream processing vendors’ facilities and we market the product to our customers, most of whom are interstate pipelines. We recognize revenue when control transfers to the customer considering factors associated with custody, title, risk of loss and other contractual provisions as appropriate. Pricing is based on a market index with adjustments for product quality and location differentials, as applicable. Costs incurred by us for gathering and transportation from the wellhead through the processing facilities are recognized as a component of GPT expenses.
Marketing services. We provide marketing services to certain of our joint venture partners and other third parties with respect to oil and gas production for which we are the operator. Pricing for such services represents a negotiated fixed rate fee based on the sales price of the underlying oil and gas products. Production attributable to joint venture partners from wells that we operate that are not subject to marketing agreements are delivered in kind. Marketing revenue is recognized simultaneously with the sale of our commodity production to our customers. Direct costs associated with our marketing efforts are included in G&A expenses.
Share-Based Compensation 
Our stock compensation plans permit the grant of incentive and nonqualified stock options, common stock, deferred common stock units, restricted stock and restricted stock units to our employees and directors. We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity-classified instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. Compensation cost associated with the liability-classified awards is measured at the end of each reporting period and recognized based on the period of time that has elapsed during the applicable performance period.
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Policy Text Block]  
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
Adoption of ASC Topic 606
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC Topic 606 and have applied the guidance therein to our contracts with customers for the sale of commodity products (crude oil, NGLs and natural gas) as well as marketing services that we provide to our joint venture partners and other third parties. ASC Topic 606 provides for a five-step revenue recognition process model to determine the transfer of goods or services to consumers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for such goods and services.
Upon the adoption of ASC Topic 606, we: (i) changed the presentation of our NGL product revenues from a gross basis to a net basis and changed the classification of certain natural gas processing costs associated with NGLs from a component of “Gathering, processing and transportation” (“GPT”) expense to a reduction of NGL product revenues as described in further detail below, (ii) wrote off $2.7 million of accounts receivable arising from natural gas imbalances accounted for under the entitlements method as a direct reduction to our beginning balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2018, and (iii) adopted the sales method with respect to production imbalance transactions beginning after December 31, 2017.
The following table illustrates the impact of the adoption of ASC Topic 606 on our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2018:
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
As Determined Under
 
As Reported Under
 
 
 
Prior GAAP
 
ASC Topic 606
 
Net Change
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
Crude oil
$
402,485

 
$
402,485

 
$

Natural gas liquids
$
23,429

 
$
21,073

 
$
(2,356
)
Natural gas
$
15,972

 
$
15,972

 
$

Marketing services (included in Other revenues, net)
$
523

 
$
523

 
$

Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
Gathering, processing and transportation
$
20,982

 
$
18,626

 
$
(2,356
)
Net income
$
224,785

 
$
224,785

 
$

 
 
 
 
 
 

Transaction Prices, Contract Balances and Performance Obligations
Substantially all of our commodity product sales are short-term in nature with contract terms of one year or less. Accordingly, we have applied the practical expedient included in ASC Topic 606, which provides for an exemption from disclosure of the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations if the performance obligation is part of a contract that has an original expected duration of one year or less.
Under our commodity product sales contracts, we bill our customers and recognize revenue when our performance obligations have been satisfied as described above. At that time, we have determined that payment is unconditional. Accordingly, our commodity sales contracts do not create contract assets or liabilities as those terms are defined in ASC Topic 606.
We record revenue in the month that our oil and gas production is delivered to our customers. As a result of the numerous requirements necessary to gather information from purchasers or various measurement locations, calculate volumes produced, perform field and wellhead allocations and distribute and disburse funds to various working interest partners and royalty owners, the collection of revenues from oil and gas production may take up to 60 days following the month of production. Therefore, we make accruals for revenues and accounts receivable based on estimates of our share of production. We record any differences, which historically have not been significant, between the actual amounts ultimately received and the original estimates in the period they become finalized.
New Accounting Pronouncement or Change in Accounting Principle, Effect of Adoption, Quantification $ 2.7  
New Accounting Pronouncements, Policy [Policy Text Block]  
Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017–07, Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost (“ASU 2017–07”). ASU 2017–07 requires employers to disaggregate the service cost component from the other components of net periodic benefit cost. The service cost component of net periodic benefit cost shall be reported in the same line item as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by the pertinent employees during the period, except for amounts capitalized. All other components of net periodic benefit cost shall be presented outside of a subtotal for income from operations. The line item used to present the components other than the service cost shall be disclosed if the other components are not presented in a separate line item or items. ASU 2017–07 is applicable to our legacy retiree benefit plans which cover a limited population of former employees. There is no service cost associated with these plans as they are not applicable to current employees, but rather there are interest and other costs associated with the legacy obligations. As required, ASU 2017–07 has been applied retrospectively to periods prior to 2018. Accordingly, the entirety of the expense associated with these plans, which was less than $0.1 million, has been included as a component of the “Other income (expense)” caption in our Consolidated Statements of Operations for all periods presented. Prior to 2018, all costs associated with these plans were included in the “General and administrative” (“G&A”) expenses caption.
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in ASU 2014–09, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014–09”) and related amendments to GAAP which, together with ASU 2014–09, represent Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASC Topic 606”). We adopted ASC Topic 606 using the cumulative effect transition method (see Note 6 for the impact and disclosures associated with the adoption of ASC Topic 606).
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Pending Adoption
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016–13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016–13”), which changes the recognition model for the impairment of financial instruments, including accounts receivable, loans and held-to-maturity debt securities, among others. ASU 2016–13 is required to be adopted using the modified retrospective method by January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2018. In contrast to current guidance, which considers current information and events and utilizes a probable threshold, (an “incurred loss” model), ASU 2016–13 mandates an “expected loss” model. The expected loss model: (i) estimates the risk of loss even when risk is remote, (ii) estimates losses over the contractual life, (iii) considers past events, current conditions and reasonable supported forecasts and (iv) has no recognition threshold. ASU 2016–13 will have applicability to our accounts receivable portfolio, particularly those receivables attributable to our joint interest partners which have a higher credit risk than those associated with our traditional customer receivables. At this time, we do not anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2016–13 will have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures; however, we are continuing to evaluate the requirements and the period for which we will adopt the standard as well as monitoring developments regarding ASU 2016–13 that are unique to our industry.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016–02, Leases (“ASU 2016–02”), which will require organizations that lease assets to recognize on the balance sheet the assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases with terms of more than twelve months. Together with recent related amendments to GAAP, ASU 2016–02 represents ASC Topic 842, Leases (“ASC Topic 842”) which supersedes all current GAAP with respect to leases. The recognition, measurement and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee primarily will depend on its classification as a finance or operating lease. ASC Topic 842 also will require disclosures regarding the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The effective date of ASC Topic 842 is January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted.
ASC Topic 842 will be applicable to our existing leases for office facilities and certain office equipment, certain field equipment, land easements and similar arrangements for rights-of-way, certain gas gathering and gas lift assets and potentially to certain drilling rig contracts with terms in excess of 12 months, to the extent we may have such contracts in the future. We are finalizing our evaluation of the impact that the adoption may have on certain crude oil gathering arrangements.
 
We will adopt ASC Topic 842 effective January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective method with a cumulative effect charge to the beginning balance of retained earnings that is not anticipated to be material. We anticipate recognizing total right-of-use assets and lease of obligations of approximately $3 million, excluding any potential impact attributable to our crude oil gathering arrangements. All of the leases for which we are recognizing assets and liabilities will be classified as operating leases. We also have identified certain contractual arrangements that will be classified as variable leases. We plan to adopt certain practical expedients provided for in ASC Topic 842 including (i) those associated with the reassessment and classification of existing leases, (ii) land easements and (iii) an election to not separate lease and non-lease components. We also plan to make an accounting policy election, effective January 1, 2019, whereby any leases with terms of one year or less will be formally classified as short-term leases.