Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation (Policies)

v3.10.0.1
Basis of Presentation (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Schedule of Policies [Line Items]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
Our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Penn Virginia and all of our subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Preparation of these statements involves the use of estimates and judgments where appropriate. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring accruals, considered necessary for a fair presentation of our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, have been included. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. Operating results for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2018.
Reclassifications
We have reclassified certain amounts included within “Accounts payable and accrued liabilities” on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2017, as disclosed in Note 11, in order to conform to the current period presentation.
Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017–07, Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost (“ASU 2017–07”). ASU 2017–07 requires employers to disaggregate the service cost component from the other components of net periodic benefit cost. The service cost component of net periodic benefit cost shall be reported in the same line item as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by the pertinent employees during the period, except for amounts capitalized. All other components of net periodic benefit cost shall be presented outside of a subtotal for income from operations. The line item used to present the components other than the service cost shall be disclosed if the other components are not presented in a separate line item or items. ASU 2017–07 is applicable to our legacy retiree benefit plans which cover a limited population of former employees. There is no service cost associated with these plans as they are not applicable to current employees, but rather there are interest and other costs associated with the legacy obligations. As required, ASU 2017–07 has been applied retrospectively to periods prior to 2018. Accordingly, the entirety of the expense associated with these plans, which was less than $0.1 million, has been included as a component of the “Other income (expense)” caption in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for each of the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017. Prior to 2018, all costs associated with these plans were included in the “General and administrative” (“G&A”) expenses caption.
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in ASU 2014–09, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014–09”) and related amendments to GAAP which, together with ASU 2014–09, represent Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASC Topic 606”). We adopted ASC Topic 606 using the cumulative effect transition method (see Note 5 for the impact and disclosures associated with the adoption of ASC Topic 606).
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Pending Adoption
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016–13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016–13”), which changes the recognition model for the impairment of financial instruments, including accounts receivable, loans and held-to-maturity debt securities, among others. ASU 2016–13 is required to be adopted using the modified retrospective method by January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2018. In contrast to current guidance, which considers current information and events and utilizes a probable threshold, (an “incurred loss” model), ASU 2016–13 mandates an “expected loss” model. The expected loss model: (i) estimates the risk of loss even when risk is remote, (ii) estimates losses over the contractual life, (iii) considers past events, current conditions and reasonable supported forecasts and (iv) has no recognition threshold. ASU 2016–13 will have applicability to our accounts receivable portfolio, particularly those receivables attributable to our joint interest partners which have a higher credit risk than those associated with our traditional customer receivables. At this time, we do not anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2016–13 will have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures; however, we are continuing to evaluate the requirements and the period for which we will adopt the standard as well as monitoring developments regarding ASU 2016–13 that are unique to our industry.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016–02, Leases (“ASU 2016–02”), which will require organizations that lease assets to recognize on the balance sheet the assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases with terms of more than twelve months. Together with recent related amendments to GAAP, ASU 2016–02 represents ASC Topic 842, Leases (“ASC Topic 842”) which supersedes all current GAAP with respect to leases. Consistent with current GAAP, the recognition, measurement and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee primarily will depend on its classification as a finance or operating lease. ASC Topic 842 also will require disclosures regarding the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The effective date of ASC Topic 842 is January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted.
ASC Topic 842 will be applicable to our existing leases for office facilities and certain office equipment, vehicles and certain field equipment, land easements and similar arrangements for rights-of-way, and potentially to certain drilling rig and completion contracts with terms in excess of 12 months, to the extent we may have such contracts in the future. In addition, we believe that our crude oil and natural gas gathering commitment arrangements, as described in Note 13, include provisions that could be construed as leases. Our crude oil and natural gas gathering arrangements are fairly complex and include, among other provisions, multiple elements and term lengths, certain volumetric-based minimums and varying degrees of optionality available to both us and the service providers. Furthermore, these arrangements have certain material payment terms that are variable in nature which, depending upon the outcome of our analysis and resulting conclusions, may have a significant impact on the amounts recognized as right of use assets and corresponding lease liabilities.
We are in the final stages of our review of leasing arrangements within the context of ASC Topic 842 in which we expect to: (i) conclude our assessment of applicability to our more complex arrangements, including the aforementioned gathering agreements, (ii) implement our enhanced lease accounting processes, (iii) implement changes to our internal controls to support the accounting and disclosure of leasing activities and (iv) assess the utilization of certain practical expedients provided in ASC Topic 842. We plan to adopt ASC Topic 842 on the effective date in 2019 using the optional transition method and will recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings. We are also continuing to monitor developments regarding ASC Topic 842 that are unique to our industry.
Going Concern Presumption
Our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities and other commitments in the normal course of business.
Subsequent Events
Management has evaluated all of our activities through the issuance date of our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and has concluded that, with the exception of the Merger Agreement as disclosed in Note 1 and an amendment to our credit agreement (“Credit Facility”) as disclosed in Note 8, no subsequent events have occurred that would require recognition in our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements or disclosure in the Notes thereto.
New Accounting Pronouncements
Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017–07, Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost (“ASU 2017–07”). ASU 2017–07 requires employers to disaggregate the service cost component from the other components of net periodic benefit cost. The service cost component of net periodic benefit cost shall be reported in the same line item as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by the pertinent employees during the period, except for amounts capitalized. All other components of net periodic benefit cost shall be presented outside of a subtotal for income from operations. The line item used to present the components other than the service cost shall be disclosed if the other components are not presented in a separate line item or items. ASU 2017–07 is applicable to our legacy retiree benefit plans which cover a limited population of former employees. There is no service cost associated with these plans as they are not applicable to current employees, but rather there are interest and other costs associated with the legacy obligations. As required, ASU 2017–07 has been applied retrospectively to periods prior to 2018. Accordingly, the entirety of the expense associated with these plans, which was less than $0.1 million, has been included as a component of the “Other income (expense)” caption in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for each of the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017. Prior to 2018, all costs associated with these plans were included in the “General and administrative” (“G&A”) expenses caption.
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted and began applying the relevant guidance provided in ASU 2014–09, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014–09”) and related amendments to GAAP which, together with ASU 2014–09, represent Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (“ASC Topic 606”). We adopted ASC Topic 606 using the cumulative effect transition method (see Note 5 for the impact and disclosures associated with the adoption of ASC Topic 606).
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Pending Adoption
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016–13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016–13”), which changes the recognition model for the impairment of financial instruments, including accounts receivable, loans and held-to-maturity debt securities, among others. ASU 2016–13 is required to be adopted using the modified retrospective method by January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2018. In contrast to current guidance, which considers current information and events and utilizes a probable threshold, (an “incurred loss” model), ASU 2016–13 mandates an “expected loss” model. The expected loss model: (i) estimates the risk of loss even when risk is remote, (ii) estimates losses over the contractual life, (iii) considers past events, current conditions and reasonable supported forecasts and (iv) has no recognition threshold. ASU 2016–13 will have applicability to our accounts receivable portfolio, particularly those receivables attributable to our joint interest partners which have a higher credit risk than those associated with our traditional customer receivables. At this time, we do not anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2016–13 will have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures; however, we are continuing to evaluate the requirements and the period for which we will adopt the standard as well as monitoring developments regarding ASU 2016–13 that are unique to our industry.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016–02, Leases (“ASU 2016–02”), which will require organizations that lease assets to recognize on the balance sheet the assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases with terms of more than twelve months. Together with recent related amendments to GAAP, ASU 2016–02 represents ASC Topic 842, Leases (“ASC Topic 842”) which supersedes all current GAAP with respect to leases. Consistent with current GAAP, the recognition, measurement and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee primarily will depend on its classification as a finance or operating lease. ASC Topic 842 also will require disclosures regarding the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The effective date of ASC Topic 842 is January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted.
ASC Topic 842 will be applicable to our existing leases for office facilities and certain office equipment, vehicles and certain field equipment, land easements and similar arrangements for rights-of-way, and potentially to certain drilling rig and completion contracts with terms in excess of 12 months, to the extent we may have such contracts in the future. In addition, we believe that our crude oil and natural gas gathering commitment arrangements, as described in Note 13, include provisions that could be construed as leases. Our crude oil and natural gas gathering arrangements are fairly complex and include, among other provisions, multiple elements and term lengths, certain volumetric-based minimums and varying degrees of optionality available to both us and the service providers. Furthermore, these arrangements have certain material payment terms that are variable in nature which, depending upon the outcome of our analysis and resulting conclusions, may have a significant impact on the amounts recognized as right of use assets and corresponding lease liabilities.
We are in the final stages of our review of leasing arrangements within the context of ASC Topic 842 in which we expect to: (i) conclude our assessment of applicability to our more complex arrangements, including the aforementioned gathering agreements, (ii) implement our enhanced lease accounting processes, (iii) implement changes to our internal controls to support the accounting and disclosure of leasing activities and (iv) assess the utilization of certain practical expedients provided in ASC Topic 842. We plan to adopt ASC Topic 842 on the effective date in 2019 using the optional transition method and will recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings. We are also continuing to monitor developments regarding ASC Topic 842 that are unique to our industry.
Revenue from Contract with Customer
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
Adoption of ASC Topic 606
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC Topic 606 and have applied the guidance therein to our contacts with customers for the sale of commodity products (crude oil, NGLs and natural gas) as well as marketing services that we provide to our joint venture partners and other third parties. ASC Topic 606 provides for a five-step revenue recognition process model to determine the transfer of goods or services to consumers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for such goods and services.
Upon the adoption of ASC Topic 606, we: (i) changed the presentation of our NGL product revenues from a gross basis to a net basis and changed the classification of certain natural gas processing costs associated with NGLs from a component of “Gathering, processing and transportation” (“GPT”) expense to a reduction of NGL product revenues as described in further detail below, (ii) wrote off $2.7 million of accounts receivable arising from natural gas imbalances accounted for under the entitlements method as a direct reduction to our beginning balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2018, and (iii) adopted the sales method with respect to production imbalance transactions beginning after December 31, 2017.
The following table illustrates the impact of the adoption of ASC Topic 606 on our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018:
 
Three Months Ended September 30, 2018
 
As Determined
 
As Reported Under
 
Increase
 
Under Prior GAAP
 
ASC Topic 606
 
(Decrease)
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
Crude oil
$
117,059

 
$
117,059

 
$

Natural gas liquids
$
6,530

 
$
5,976

 
$
(554
)
Natural gas
$
3,768

 
$
3,768

 
$

Marketing services (included in Other revenues, net)
$
143

 
$
143

 
$

Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
Gathering, processing and transportation
$
5,482

 
$
4,928

 
$
(554
)
Net income
$
16,276

 
$
16,276

 
$

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018
 
As Determined
 
As Reported Under
 
Increase
 
Under Prior GAAP
 
ASC Topic 606
 
(Decrease)
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
Crude oil
$
290,033

 
$
290,033

 
$

Natural gas liquids
$
16,025

 
$
14,455

 
$
(1,570
)
Natural gas
$
10,470

 
$
10,470

 
$

Marketing services (included in Other revenues, net)
$
388

 
$
388

 
$

Operating expenses
 
 
 
 

Gathering, processing and transportation
$
14,431

 
$
12,861

 
$
(1,570
)
Net income
$
24,050

 
$
24,050

 
$


Accounting Policies for Revenue Recognition and Associated Costs
Crude oil. We sell our crude oil production to our customers at either the wellhead or a contractually agreed-upon delivery point, including certain regional central delivery point terminals or pipeline inter-connections. We recognize revenue when control transfers to the customer considering factors associated with custody, title, risk of loss and other contractual provisions as appropriate. Pricing is based on a market index with adjustments for product quality, location differentials and, if applicable, deductions for intermediate transportation. Costs incurred by us for gathering and transporting the products to an agreed-upon delivery point are recognized as a component of GPT expense.
NGLs. We have natural gas processing contracts in place with certain midstream processing vendors. We deliver “wet” natural gas to our midstream processing vendors at the inlet of their processing facilities through gathering lines, certain of which we own and others which are owned by gathering service providers. Subsequent to processing, NGLs are delivered or otherwise transported to a third-party customer. Depending upon the nature of the contractual arrangements with the midstream processing vendors, particularly those attributable to the marketing of the NGL products, we recognize revenue for NGL products on either a gross or net basis. For those contracts where we have determined that we are the principal, and the ultimate third party is our customer, we recognize revenue on a gross basis, with associated processing costs presented as GPT expenses. For those contracts where we have determined that we are the agent and the midstream processing vendor is our customer, we recognize NGL product revenues based on a net basis with processing costs presented as a reduction of revenue. Based on an analysis of all of our existing natural gas processing contracts, we have determined that, as of January 1, 2018, and through September 30, 2018, we are the agent and our midstream processing vendors are our customers with respect to all of our NGL product sales.
Natural gas. Subsequent to the aforementioned processing of “wet” natural gas and the separation of NGL products, the “dry” or residue gas is delivered to us at the tailgate of the midstream processing vendors’ facilities and we market the product to our customers, most of whom are interstate pipelines. We recognize revenue when control transfers to the customer considering factors associated with custody, title, risk of loss and other contractual provisions as appropriate. Pricing is based on a market index with adjustments for product quality and location differentials, as applicable. Costs incurred by us for gathering and transportation from the wellhead through the processing facilities are recognized as a component of GPT expenses.
Marketing services. We provide marketing services to certain of our joint venture partners and other third parties with respect to oil and gas production for which we are the operator. Pricing for such services represents a negotiated fixed rate fee based on the sales price of the underlying oil and gas products. Production attributable to joint venture partners from wells that we operate that are not subject to marketing agreements are delivered in kind. Marketing revenue is recognized simultaneously with the sale of our commodity production to our customers. Direct costs associated with our marketing efforts are included in G&A expenses.
Transaction Prices, Contract Balances and Performance Obligations
Substantially all of our commodity product sales are short-term in nature with contract terms of one year or less. Accordingly, we have applied the practical expedient included in ASC Topic 606, which provides for an exemption from disclosure of the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations if the performance obligation is part of a contract that has an original expected duration of one year or less.
Under our commodity product sales contracts, we bill our customers and recognize revenue when our performance obligations have been satisfied as described above. At that time, we have determined that payment is unconditional. Accordingly, our commodity sales contracts do not create contract assets or liabilities as those terms are defined in ASC Topic 606.
We record revenue in the month that our oil and gas production is delivered to our customers. As a result of the numerous requirements necessary to gather information from purchasers or various measurement locations, calculate volumes produced, perform field and wellhead allocations and distribute and disburse funds to various working interest partners and royalty owners, the collection of revenues from oil and gas production may take up to 60 days following the month of production. Therefore, we make accruals for revenues and accounts receivable based on estimates of our share of production, particularly from properties that are operated by our joint venture partners. We record any differences, which historically have not been significant, between the actual amounts ultimately received and the original estimates in the period they become finalized.
Fair Value Measurements
We apply the authoritative accounting provisions included in GAAP for measuring the fair value of both our financial and nonfinancial assets and liabilities. Fair value is an exit price representing the expected amount we would receive upon the sale of an asset or that we would expect to pay to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction with market participants at the measurement date.
Our financial instruments that are subject to fair value disclosure consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, derivatives and our Credit Facility and Second Lien Facility borrowings. As of September 30, 2018, the carrying values of all of these financial instruments approximated fair value.
Fair Value, Measurements, Recurring  
Schedule of Policies [Line Items]  
Fair Value Measurements
We used the following methods and assumptions to estimate fair values for the financial assets and liabilities described below:
Commodity derivatives: We determine the fair values of our commodity derivative instruments based on discounted cash flows derived from third-party quoted forward prices for WTI and LLS crude oil closing prices as of the end of the reporting periods. We generally use the income approach, using valuation techniques that convert future cash flows to a single discounted value. Each of these is a Level 2 input.
Fair Value, Measurements, Nonrecurring  
Schedule of Policies [Line Items]  
Fair Value Measurements
Non-Recurring Fair Value Measurements
In addition to the fair value measurements applied with respect to the Hunt and Devon Acquisitions, as described in Note 3, the most significant non-recurring fair value measurements utilized in the preparation of our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements are those attributable to the initial determination of AROs associated with the ongoing development of new oil and gas properties. The determination of the fair value of AROs is based upon regional market and facility specific information. The amount of an ARO and the costs capitalized represent the estimated future cost to satisfy the abandonment obligation using current prices that are escalated by an assumed inflation factor after discounting the future cost back to the date that the abandonment obligation was incurred using a rate commensurate with the risk, which approximates our cost of funds. Because these significant fair value inputs are typically not observable, we have categorized the initial estimates as Level 3 inputs.